2. Madura Maize based farming systems. 1982
Images: CVSIND025-102


Villages studied are indicated by a pin:
Kedungdung, Sampang, Pamekasan,
Sumenep & Tanjungbumi

A study was made in 1982 of food crop farming in Madura, to support the Madura Groundwater Project, which project was to establish groundwater supplies for a number of tube well areas, each of 30 ha per location in Madura.  For this purpose, a farm survey was carried out during February 1982 by a team of the Malang Research Institute for Food Crops. The following information is derived from the teams’ report:
In 1982 there were 490. 000 farm holdings reported on the island of Madura, of which 80% was in the size class of under 0.50 ha.
The Madura farm was characterized by intensive mixed farming systems, including crops and livestock.
Food crops:
Eighty- seven percent of the farmers grow dry land crops, particularly maize, which crop is the main staple food for the Madura farm family. Due to the short growing season on Madura, special short duration maize varieties are planted, which mature within 60 days –images 060 to 062. After harvesting and drying, the maize is grinded with a traditional maize grinder- image 044, and the ground maize is steamed in a similar fashion as rice on Java; sometimes the maize is mixed with rice.

Eighty- five percent of the farmers report growing wetland rice on rain fed or irrigated land. Other crops planted are: groundnut, mung beans- Vigna radiate-, soybean, cowpea, cassava, sweet potato and sesame.  In Eastern Madura tobacco is grown during the dry season as a cash crop. Vegetables include tomato, pepper-Capsicum var.-, other Solanaceae species and various leaf vegetables. Fruit trees include banana, coconut, mango, rambutan-Nephelium lappaceum-, papaya, citrus and kedongdong-Spondia mombin.L.

A typical holding operates from three to six separate parcels. Most parcels are cropped two to three times per year mainly with short maturity varieties, as available moisture allows. Inter cropping, mixed cropping and relay cropping are common features. See introduction on West Java farming on page 7.

Animal husbandry is closely interwoven with crop husbandry. The average number of draft cattle per farm is 1.8 head per unit, implying that most farmers have the means to plough their land with their own cattle. Cattle include both draught animals for ploughing -images 042, 043, 051- 055-and racing bulls for the famous Madura bull races- images 084 to 093. Other livestock species include goats, sheep, chickens and ducks. Most livestock is stable fed on crop residues. Dung forms an important produce and is applied as manure for fertilization of the fields, either for on-farm use or sold.
Farm families are large and consist of an average of 5.4 persons per farm, of which an average of 3.6 persons work on the farm. About 70% of the farmers are literate with an average of 2.6 years of schooling.

About 90 % of the farmland, is owned by farmers under traditional land ownership rights and about 10% of the holdings crops land is rented. The average cropping intensity is 183, which implies that 83 % of the farm fields is twice cropped per year.  About 60% of the farm holdings report off-farm employment during part of the year, to increase their income, as most holdings produce is insufficient for maintenance of the farmer’s family.  Off- farm employment on Madura Island includes work in the traditional sea salt industry in East Madura, in fisheries-in the coastal belt and petty trading. Other Madura farmers work part time on Java Island as food sellers, becak drivers- three wheel bicycle taxis- and other unskilled jobs.

A very rough estimate of annual farm income amounts to US$ 500, explaining the need for the average farmer to seek off- farm employment, either on Madura or on Java.

Source: Existing Cropping Systems in Madura. 1983 C.E. van Santen

previous image | next image