Survey areas are indicated by a pin:
Cikajang-Garut District
Jalaksana-Kuningan District


1. Traditional Farming in West Java Province: 1979-1980

A study of rice based lowland irrigated farming below 500m & upland vegetable farming 500 m and higher altitudes: Images CVSIND 001-024

During 1979/1980 a pilot farm survey was conducted in two districts of West Java Province, under the FAO sponsored Pilot Farming Systems Project in West Java and Lampung Provinces. The following information is derived from this study in West Java, which was carried out under my guidance.

In West Java in the early eighties the statistics showed that there were 4.65 million small holding farms, of which 52% were rain fed and 48% irrigated. The study focused on the 2,43 million rain fed holdings, of which 80% operated less than one hectare, with an average farm size of 0.46 hectare.

Most of these holdings operated complex mixed farming systems on four to five different parcels of land, divided over bottom- and up-lands and cropped an average of six different crops in any agricultural year with a selection of the following crops: rice- both wetland and upland; cassava, maize, sweet potato, groundnuts, various species of vegetables, cloves, fruit trees, firewood at higher altitudes coffee or tea trees.

Intercropping, mixed cropping and relay cropping were common features and often more than one crop per calendar year was harvested from the same parcel.

  • Intercropping-two or more crops are grown simultaneously in the same area, in the same, alternate of paired rows.
  • Mixed cropping –two or more crops are grown simultaneously in the same field at the same time, but not in row arrangements and
  • Relay cropping, whereby seedlings or seeds of the following crop are inter-planted with the maturing crop on the field.  

Livestock includes goats, sheep, poultry and fishponds. Cattle were only reported in 1% of the holdings, forcing small farmers to hire cattle for land preparation & ploughing.

At the altitudes above 500 meters above sea level, vegetable crops dominate and include cabbages, onions and potatoes.

The images CVSIND001 to 009 show irrigated rice fields, including ploughing and harvesting rice.Images CVSIND 010 & 011 shows fishponds. Images: CVSIND 013-015 show vegetable farming in the highlands and separately, image 016 shows a quinine plantation and image 017 a large tea plantation. Images 018& 019 show the intercropping of papaya trees with bananas, vegetables and groundnuts. The series ends with an image of a dogcart, a two wheel horse drawn vehicle-image 024.

Source: Report on the Pilot Farm Survey 1980 in Cikajang, Garut & Jalaksana, Kuningan Districts in West Java Province. Bandung 1980: Compiled by Charles van Santen.



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