10. Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations

1. Size of the settler holding

The size of the holding is determined by the desired income level of the settlers
For rain-fed schemes a plot of between 2 to 5 ha plus some grazing land is recommended
For irrigated schemes a plot of 1 ha is recommended

2. Individual or collective farming

In the initial stages collective activities are recommended but after this stage individual farming is recommended as it stimulates the individuals need for responsibilities.
After the initial year of a project, settler selection training and development of local leadership becomes important. Yet pre-selection, apart from age and good health does not seem very essential.
After one or two seasons, with close supervision of the extension staff, a selection may be carried out and those who are capable of working independently may be selected
to run an independent plot, while others not yet capable of working independently are given other tasks. The important issue during the training period is the development of local leadership.

3. Level of support to settlers

The level of support given to settlers depends on the aims of the settlement agency.
As a minimum, settlers are to receive food aid and water supply during the initial stages
Additional support may include:

  • Farm inputs, farm tools and plough oxen
  • Agricultural extension services
  • Basic health services
  • Flour mills
  • And if relevant, control of malaria and tryposome infections

For development of modern small farmholder farming support is to include:

  • Infra structural works, farm roads, service centers, and work shops
  • Land clearing and the establishment of irrigation and drainage canals
  • Farm credit, marketing and storage facilities
  • Consumer supply stores
  • Schools and adult literacy programmes

3. General Agricultural Issues

Considering both the experiences and the needs of the Ethiopian farmers it is recommended to establish mixed farming systems, including crop and horticultural crops, animal husbandry and forestry plantations for fire wood supply.
To establish the link between farming and applied agricultural research
To implement strict soil conservation measures
To aim to achieve optimal levels of mechanization, including improved oxen traction and land preparation by tractor
National price policies should be adjusted to encourage settlers and increase their income.

5. Costs and returns from settlement schemes in Ethiopia

Proper record keeping is strongly recommended, as in 1976 no financial data were available for the majority of the settlement schemes included in the survey.

Cost and returns per settler unit for the six case studies

Name of scheme

Type of scheme

Investment per holding  $

Est. return per holding /year $


Self help

$ 125



Self help

$ 150



Self help improved

$ 1 350



Modern small holder

$ 2 000


Angar Gutin

Modern small holder

$ 1 500



Mechanized farming

$ 3 200

$ 1 400


6. Staff

Staff selected to supervise settlement schemes should have at least a junior agricultural college level education. In addition, they should be given short courses on settlement aspects, including development of leadership and agricultural issues.
Staff should receive adequate salaries and lodging arrangements.

7. National Settlement Inventory

It is recommended that a continuing national settlement inventory is undertaken to allow rapid adjustment of policies and arrangements when needed

8. National Settlement Policy

It is recommended to establish a national policy to guide settlement in Ethiopia.